CEER – Council of European Energy Regulators

CEER is the voice of Europe’s national energy regulators at EU and international level. Through CEER,  the national regulators cooperate and exchange best practice. 

Objectives and Functions

The overall aim of the Council of European Energy Regulators (CEER) is to facilitate the creation of a single, competitive, efficient and sustainable internal market for gas and electricity in Europe. The CEER acts as a platform for cooperation, information exchange and assistance between Europe’s national energy regulators and is their interface at EU and international level. On EU issues, CEER works very closely with (and supports) the Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER), an EU Agency formed for the cooperation of energy regulators.

CEER also strives to share regulatory best practice worldwide through its membership in the International Confederation of Energy Regulators (ICER) which brings together similar associations from across the globe including NARUC (America), ERRA (Central/Eastern Europe) and MEDREG (the Mediterranean region).

Objectives and Functions

As part of CEER’s strategy development, CEER has adopted a set of values for its members and staff to be applied internally and externally. These values are intended to guide and inform CEER’s culture, behaviour and all associated outputs, in the interests of European energy consumers. Using the CEER acronym as a reminder, our values are:


In March 2000, ten national energy regulatory authorities signed the “Memorandum of Understanding for the establishment of the Council of European Energy Regulators”. They had voluntarily formed CEER to facilitate cooperation in their common interests for the promotion of the internal electricity and gas market. In order to cope with a growing number of issues and to improve cooperation at the operational level, the regulators decided in 2003 to formally establish themselves as a not-for-profit association under Belgian law and to set up a small secretariat in Brussels. The Statutes were published in the annex of the Belgian State Gazette on 21 October 2003 and have since been updated, including recently.


We cooperate and collaborate, acting in solidarity in the European public interest.


We use evidence to independently promote regulatory positions and well-functioning markets in the consumer interest.


We value expertise and are dedicated to delivering excellent regulatory outcomes.


We act in a positive team environment with integrity and respect to all, also valuing equality and diversity.

CEER – Council of European Energy Regulators

ACER is the “Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators”. It is a Community body with legal personality. ACER became fully operational on 3 March 2011. Its seat is in Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ACER plays a key role in the integration of the EU’s markets in electricity and natural gas, providing a framework at EU level for national regulators to cooperate and providing clarity and regulatory certainty.


The precursor to ACER was the European Regulators Group for Electricity and Gas (ERGEG), which was set up by a European Commission decision in November 2003 (Decision of November 11 2003, 2003/796/EC). With ACER fully operational (since March 2011), ERGEG was dissolved by the Commission, with effect from 1 July 2011 ( Decision of 16 May 2011, repealing Decision 2003/796/EC).  Some of ERGEG’s works passes to ACER (e.g. the Regional Initiatives) and some  (e.g. customer issue) to CEER. CEER will continue to exist, in Brussels, as a platform for Europe’s energy regulators to develop common interests that are of pan-European or even wider significance (e.g. smart grids and sustainability issues) and which are complementary (but not overlapping) to ACER’s work.

ACER’s Foundations

The Third Legislative Package for the Liberalisation of the Energy Market establishes an Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER). The Regulation establishing ACER ( (EC) No 713/2009) is part of a set of five legislative acts adopted in summer 2009 aimed at improving the functioning of Europe’s electricity and gas markets.

Objectives and Functions

ACER complements and coordinates the work of the NRAs, at EU level. Its competences include preparing Framework Guidelines which will form the basis of EU-wide network codes (drafted by the European Network bodies); taking binding individual decisions on terms and conditions for access and operational security for cross border infrastructure if NRAs cannot agree; giving advice on various energy-related issues to the European institutions; and monitoring and reporting to the European Parliament and the Council.


ACER is made up of a) a Board of Regulators comprising  a senior representative and one alternate of the EU Member States’ 28 national regulatory authorities (NRAs) and one non-voting Commission representative; b) an Administrative Board comprising 9 members and one alternate for each, of which 2 members (and their alternates) are appointed by the European Commission, 2 (and their alternates) by the European Parliament and 5 (and their alternates) by the Council; c) a Director; and d) a Board of Appeal.

More info at www.acer.europa.eu